? What do the results mean
If someone gets a “normal result” from a screening (a negative result), this means they are at low risk of having the condition they were screened for
If a person gets a positive result from a screening, it means they may have the condition they were screened for. It will usually require further tests (diagnostic tests) to confirm the results
Health checks and screenings
: In your 20’s and 30’s
- – Blood pressure
- – Cholesterol and glucose levels
- – BMI, waist and hip measurements
- – Dental check and cleaning
- -Skin cancer checks
- – Breast self-checks
- – Cervical screening
In your 40’s
- All of the health checks and screenings as in your 20’s and 30’s plus
- -Type 2 diabetes risk assessment
- -Cardiovascular risk assessment
- – Eye checks for glaucoma
In your 50’s and 60’s
- All of the health checks and screenings as in your 40’s plus:
- – Mammogram (breast screening)
- – Osteoporosis risk assessment
- -Colorectal (bowel cancer) screening
- -Sight and hearing impairment test
Spinal cord injuries
: Traumatic injuries(causes)
- – Car crash
- -Sports injuries
- -Falls from a height
- – Gymnastics
- – Violence
- – Diving into shallow water
: Signs and symptoms of a potential spinal injury
- -extreme back pain
- – weakness, lack of coordination
- – numbness, tingling or loss of sensation in the hands
- – loss of bladder or bowel control.
- – difficulty with balance and walking.
- -impaired breathing after the injury.
- – an oddly positioned or twisted neck or bac
: Non-traumatic injuries and illnesses(causes)
- – Cancer
- – Osteoporosis
- – Multiple sclerosis
- – Inflammation of the spinal cord
- – Arthritis
: Emergency care
Keep the person still, place
cushions/towels/clothes on both sides of the
neck to stop it moving
: Do not twist or turn the head or unless you need to do any of the following
- -Turn the person face-up to give CPR
- -Move the person out of further danger
- – Turn the person because of difficulty breathing, vomiting or fluid in the mouth
– A closed head injury when there has
been a hard blow to the head by an object which did not break the skull
-An open or penetrating head injury
means that an object broke the skull.
Head injuries include the following:
- – concussion
- – scalp wounds
- -skull fractures
: symptoms of a potential spinal injury
-Unconsciousness , Unresponsive or only moans
Acts sleepy or confused , Fits or seizures
Difficulty speaking or staying awake , Vomiting
– Problems with the senses hearing loss , Memory loss , Blood or clear fluid coming from the ears or nose , swelling bruising around both eyes
-Difficulty walking or with coordination
: Emergency care
stop any bleeding with a clean dressing, apply ice to swollen areas
: get medical help straight away if the person
- -becomes very sleepy.
- – behaves abnormally.
- -develops a severe headache or stiff neck.
- – has pupils (the dark central part of the eye) with unequal sizes.
- – is unable to move an arm or leg.
- – loses consciousness
- – even briefly.
- – vomits more than once
Low blood sugar can occur when a person with diabetes
-misses a meal.
– has not eaten enough food.
– takes too much insulin.
-does a lot of physical activity without eating enough
: Hyperglycemia can lead to damage to the
- -blood vessels
- – eyes
- – kidneys
- – nerves
Signs of hyperglycinemia include the following
– Feeling sick
– Fruity smelling breath
– Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
– Polyuria (excessive urination)
– Tiredness and fatigue
A mild allergic reaction can result in a stuffy nose, sneezing or itching. It can also result in a skin rash or hives.
A severe allergic reaction can make it difficult to breathe. It can lead to swelling of the face or tongue
Administering an epinephrine pen
-Ask the person if they are having an allergic reaction
-help them to locate it
. -read the instructions on the auto-injector.
-Remove the safety cap.
-Hold the person’s leg firmly in place. -hard against the person’s thigh.
-held in place for the advised length of Time(between three and ten seconds.)
– rub the thigh
-All details should be passed on to the emergency services
Emergency medical care for burns Large burns
- Make sure the scene is safe.
- Get a first aid kit and wear protective equipment, such as gloves.
- If there is a fire or the burn is across a large area of the body, call the emergency services.
- If the person or clothing is on fire, quickly put the fire out. Get them to ‘stop, drop and roll’, then cover them with a wet blanket.
- When the fire is fully out, remove the blanket. Then remove any clothing or jeweler that is covering the burn so that they do not stick to the skin.
- Cool the burn with cold water for at least 10 minutes. Then, cover with a non-stick sterile dressing.
- Cover the person with a dry blanket.
- Check for signs of shock and treat as needed.
Emergency medical care for Compound fracture
: Call the emergency services if
- – the casualty becomes unresponsive.
- -there is a large open wound.
- -you suspect they have an injury in their head, neck or spine.
- – you do not know what to do
No. Practical Step
- Make sure the scene is safe.
- Get the first aid kit and the AED.
- Wear PPE, such as gloves.
- Cover the wound with a dressing.
- Apply pressure to stop the bleeding. Be careful not to press on a protruding bone
- Build up pads of clean and soft material around the bone until it can be bandage over without pressing on the injury
- . If needed, treat the casualty for shock.
- Get the casualty to the hospital
: Common causes of upper airway obstruction
– Obstruction by the tongue (anatomical obstruction)
– Foreign objects, such as food or other items which may have been accidentally swallowed (mechanical obstruction)
– Tissue damage
– Allergic reactions
: When there is a partial airway obstruction
– encourage responsive patients to cough to try to clear the airway.
– do not interfere with the patient’s efforts to clear the airway themselves.
– if they are not able to clear the obstruction, begin first aid as if there is a complete airway obstruction
Signs of partial airway
obstruction include noisy breathing such as snoring, gurgling,
crowing, wheezing and stridor (high-pitched, wheezing sound)