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ملخص الفصل 12 الكيمياء العضوية كيمياء منهج إنجليزي صف ثاني عشر متقدم فصل ثالث

مرفق لكم ملخص الفصل 12 الكيمياء العضوية كيمياء منهج إنجليزي صف ثاني عشر متقدم فصل ثالث مناهج الامارات .

معلومات المذكرة :

A copolymer is a polymer that consists of two different monomers. Dynel and Saran Wrap are examples. Certain monomers that contain two double bonds in each molecule form flexible, elastic polymers called elastomers; rubber and neoprene are examples. Polyamides and polyesters are polymers produced by chemical reactions rather than by the polymerization of monomers.

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The polypeptide chain forms a backbone structure in proteins: On first inspection, this structure appears to be comected entirely by single C-C or C-N bonds. It should therefore be as flexible as a simple hydrocarbon chain. Note that flexing in a covalent structure does not occur by bending bonds, and the normal tetrahedral or trigonal planar bond angles are maintained Instead, different shapes are obtained by torsional rotation about the axis of the bonds:

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